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# Calculate The Mass of A Black Hole Using Nuclear Physics

## New Method/Hypothesis

Calculating the mass of a Black Hole has been a cosmological riddle among the scientists over last two decades. There was an intuition, that a celestial body could be so massive that it can bend space-time in such a manner, that anything, even light could not get an exemption from its gravitational pull. This hypothetical concept was coined in brief by astronomer *John Michell* in November 1784.

## Karl Schwarzschild’s statement

After the development of the *GTR (General Theory of Relativity)*, the experiment shows that light motion gets bent with the influence of gravity. By figuring out a solution (to the Einstein’s field equation) Karl Schwarzschild stated the gravitational field about a point mass and a spherical mass.

With the progression of science and technology, after analyzing the data of gravity waves, detecting with gravity telescopes and from other experiments, and using some relevant theories, scientists inferred a model of a black hole.

## Theories related to the creation of black holes

There are many theories related to the creation of black holes. One popular theory is that, after the death of a massive star, the gravitational pull is so massive that it can overcome the radiation pressure and collapse the star according to the Chandrasekhar limit (*1.4 solar mass*). An argument opposed the theory that, unknown functioning stops the collapse, this theory was somewhat trailed by a white dwarf, whose mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar Limit, could collapse into a neutron star, and it is stable as indicated by Pauli’s exclusion principle. Yet later an estimation arose that, some neutron stars (>3 solar mass), could debacle into the black hole under the Chandrasekhar Limit prediction and also presumes that laws of physics weren’t probably going to violate and shut the process down, for some stars from transforming to black holes.

## Predictions

Predictions indicate that physical information would be disappeared into BH forever, this violates a presumed precept of quantum mechanics. This catastrophe is caused by synchronizing the quantum mechanics and general theory of relativity is called ‘*The Blackhole information loss paradox*’.

Despite the fact that anything could not emanate from black holes, in numerous hypothetical approach like quantum field hypothesis in bent space-time presumes that few radiations like Hawking Radiation could be possible. The spectrum is identical to a black body spectrum, whose temperature is inversely proportional to its mass. This is near about the order of billionths of a Kelvin of a black hole, which is practically impossible for detection.

## Stephen Hawking’s Contribution to BH

Stephen Hawking coined the concept in 1971 that the existing black holes are in lesser mass than the stellar mass. This idea took us to a new level that micro black holes or more precisely quantum mechanical black holes may exist. The quantum mechanical effects perform a vital role in this kind of tiny black holes. The probability of the creation of such quantum primitive black holes, in the immensely dense environment in the primordial universe after the Big Bang through a consecutive phase transition, was nearly quite possible. This may be possible to observe this kind of black holes for cosmologists by detecting the particles, that are

anticipated to exhale by *Hawking Radiation*.

## Calculating the minimum mass of a Theoretical Black Hole

Representing a very simple mathematical calculation, no complications, have a look! To calculate the mass of mass of a black hole using nuclear physics few assumptions needs to be taken.

## Assumptions:

- Assuming, Escape velocity of a particle in Blackhole > c (speed of light)
- Assuming that the mass-
**…..**

To see the REST DETAILS, read the **November issue (2017)**

**The Mass Phenomenon of Black Holes**‘ on the

**4th issue**of Akashganga Science magazine.