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Four small-scale missions have been chosen by NASA, these new programs are together called pioneers. This is going to b fulfilled using small satellites and scientific balloons, which enable us to explore cosmic phenomena such evolution of the galaxy, exoplanet, neutrinos of high energy, neutron star, and mergers.
The four concepts taken as a mission are:
a. ASPERA: It is a small satellite that is going to study galaxy evolution. Space between galaxies will be observed using ultraviolet light and the inflow and outflow of gases will be studied within the intergalactic medium. This will be carried on by the University of Arizona.
b. PANDORA: It is a small satellite that is going to study 20 stars and 39 exoplanets associated with it, using infrared light. Signals from stars and planetary atmospheres are aimed to be disentangled in order to understand how a change in starlight affects the measurement of exoplanets in search of habitable planets. This is carried on by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
c. STARBURST: This project is managed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center will use a small satellite that is going to detect high-energy gamma rays from merger events of dense stellar remnants such as neutron star or from gravitational wave mergers.
d. PUEO: The University of Chicago is going to launch a balloon mission from Antarctica that will detect signals from ultra-high-energy neutrinos, that would give important information about high energy astrophysical process like black hole creation. It would be the most sensitive study of high-energy neutrinos that have ever existed.